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White, C. J. M., Dean, C. M.,* Laurin, K. (In press). Do reminders of God increase willingness to take risks? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Preprint available at


Mosley, A. J.,* White, C. J. M., & Solomon, L.H. (Accepted). Children’s Moral Evaluations of and Behaviors toward People Who are Curious about Religion and Science.  Child Development.

White, C. J. M., Mosley, A. J., & Solomon, L. H. (In Press). Adults Show Positive Moral Evaluations of Curiosity about Religion.  Social Psychological and Personality Science.


White, C. J. M., Johnson, K. A., & Mirbozorgi, B. (In press). Unique cognitive and emotional profiles of interpersonal gratitude and spiritual gratitude. The Journal of Positive Psychology.


Pasek, M. H., Kelly, J. M., Shackleford, C., White, C.J.M., Vishkin, A., Smith, J., Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A., & Ginges, J. (2023). Thinking about God encourages prosociality towards religious outgroups: A cross-cultural investigation. Psychological Science, 34(6). doi:

Hoogeveen, S., Sarafoglou, A., … White, C. J. M., …van Elk, M., Wagenmakers, E. (In press). Many-Analysts Approach to the Relation Between Religiosity and Well-being.  Religion, Brain, & Behavior. doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2022.2070255


White, C. J. M., Schaller, M., Abraham, E., Rottman, J. (In press). Navigating between punishment, avoidance, and instruction: The form and function of responses to moral violations varies across adult and child transgressors.  Cognition, 223, 105048. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2022.105048 PDF


White, C. J. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2022).  Karma and God: Convergent and divergent mental representations of supernatural norm enforcement.  Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 14(1), 70–85. doi:  10.1037/rel0000436 PDF


White, C. J. M., Muthukrishna, M., & Norenzayan., A. (2021).  Cultural similarity among co-religionists within and between countries.  PNAS, 118 (37): e2109650118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2109650118 PDF


Baimel, A., White, C. J. M., Sarkissian, H. & Norenzayan, A. (2021).  How is analytical thinking related to religious belief?  A test of three theoretical models.  Religion, Brain, and Behavior, 11 (3): 239-260. doi:  10.1080/2153599X.2021.1878259 PDF


White, C. J. M., Willard, A.K., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2021).  Cognitive pathways to belief in karma and belief in God. Cognitive Science, 45(1): e12935.  doi: 10.1111/cogs.12935 PDF


​​White, C. J. M., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2021).  How cultural learning and cognitive biases shape religious beliefs.  Current Opinion in Psychology, 40, 34-39.  doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2020.07.033 PDF

White, C. J. M., Schaller, M., & Norenzayan, A. (2020).  How strongly do moral character inferences predict forecasts of the future?  Testing the moderating roles of transgressor age, implicit personality theories, and belief in karma. PLoS ONE, 15(12): e0244144. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244144

White, C. J. M., Kelly, J. M., Shariff, A. F., & Norenzayan, A. (2019).  Supernatural norm enforcement: Thinking about karma and God reduces selfishness among believers.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 84, 103797. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2019.03.008  PDF


White, C. J. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2019). Belief in karma: How cultural evolution, cognition, and motivations shape belief in supernatural justice. In J. M. Olson (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 60, pp. 1–63). doi: 10.1016/bs.aesp.2019.03.001  PDF


White, C. J. M., Norenzayan, A., & Schaller, M. (2019).  The content and correlates of belief in Karma across cultures.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45, 1184-1201.  doi: 10.1177/0146167218808502  PDF


White, C. J. M., & Schaller, M.  (2018).  Are children perceived to be morally exceptional? Different sets of psychological variables predict adults’ moral judgments about adults and about young children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44, 1147 – 1162.  doi: 10.1177/0146167218760800  PDF


Hofer, M. K., Buckels, E. E., White, C. J. M., Beall, A. T., and Schaller, M. (2018).  Individual differences in activation of the parental care motivational system: An empirical distinction between protection and nurturance.  Social Psychological and Personality Science.  doi: 10.1177/1948550617728994  PDF


White, C., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2017).  What are the causes and consequences of belief in karma?. Religion, Brain, and Behavior, 7(4), 339 – 342.  doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2016.1249921  PDF

Under Review

White, C. J. M., & Billet, M. I. (2022). The role of anthropomorphism, spirituality, and gratitude in pro-environmental attitudes.  Manuscript under review.


White, C. J.M., & Willard, A. K. (2023). How karma harms and helps generosity towards those in need. Manuscript under review.

Manuscripts in preparation

Billet, M.I., White, C.J.M., & Norenzayan, A. (2023). End of World Beliefs Predict Environmental Policy Support. Manuscript in preparation.


Hofer, M. K., Lai, A., White, C.J.M., & Schaller, M. (2023).  Does caring breed contempt?: Examining the hypothesis that activation of a “parental” mindset causes harsher moral judgments.  Manuscript in preparation.


Mercier, B., White, C. J. M., & Inbar, Y. (2023). Bad victims: Moral transgressions against immoral victims are judged less harshly. Manuscript in preparation. Preprint available at


Salvador, C. E., White, C. J. M., & Ai, T. (2023).  Who is your biggest critic? Cultural variation in moral judgements of the self and others.  Manuscript in preparation.


Schimmelpfennig, R., Spicer, R., White, C. J. M., Gervais, W., Norenzayan, A., Heine, S., Henrich, S., & Muthukrishna, M. (2023). A Problem in theory and more: Measuring the moderating role of culture in Many Labs 2. Manuscript in preparation. Preprint available at


White, C. J. M., & Muthukrishna, M. (2023). More educated, more WEIRD: Higher education predicts worldwide cultural similarity to the United States and other WEIRD countries. Manuscript in preparation. Preprint available at

White, C. J. M., Johnson, K. A., & Mirbozorgi, B. (2023).  Varieties of spiritual gratitude: Differences between emotional responses to blessing from God, karma, and human benefactors.  Manuscript under review. Preprint available at

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