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White, C. J. M., Muthukrishna, M., & Norenzayan., A. (In press). Cultural similarity among co-religionists within and between countries.  PNAS.  Preprint available at

​White, C. J. M., & Norenzayan, A. (Accepted).  Karma and God: Convergent and divergent mental representations of supernatural norm enforcement.  Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Preprint available at


Baimel, A., White, C. J. M., Sarkissian, H. & Norenzayan, A. (Accepted).  How is analytical thinking related to religious belief?  A test of three theoretical models.  Religion, Brain, and Behavior. Preprint available at


White, C. J. M., Willard, A.K., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (Accepted).  Cognitive pathways to belief in karma and belief in God.  Cognitive Science.  Preprint available at

White, C. J. M., Schaller, M., & Norenzayan, A. (Accepted).  How strongly do moral character inferences predict forecasts of the future?  Testing the moderating roles of transgressor age, implicit personality theories, and belief in karma. PLOS ONE. Preprint available at

White, C. J. M., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2021).  How cultural learning and cognitive biases shape religious beliefs.  Current Opinion in Psychology, 40, 34-39.  doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2020.07.033 PDF

White, C. J. M., Kelly, J. M., Shariff, A. F., & Norenzayan, A. (2019).  Supernatural norm enforcement: Thinking about karma and God reduces selfishness among believers.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 84, 103797. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2019.03.008  PDF


White, C. J. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2019). Belief in karma: How cultural evolution, cognition, and motivations shape belief in supernatural justice. In J. M. Olson (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 60, pp. 1–63). doi: 10.1016/bs.aesp.2019.03.001  PDF


White, C. J. M., Norenzayan, A., & Schaller, M. (2019).  The content and correlates of belief in Karma across cultures.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45, 1184-1201.  doi: 10.1177/0146167218808502  PDF


White, C. J. M., & Schaller, M.  (2018).  Are children perceived to be morally exceptional? Different sets of psychological variables predict adults’ moral judgments about adults and about young children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44, 1147 – 1162.  doi: 10.1177/0146167218760800  PDF


Hofer, M. K., Buckels, E. E., White, C. J. M., Beall, A. T., and Schaller, M. (2018).  Individual differences in activation of the parental care motivational system: An empirical distinction between protection and nurturance.  Social Psychological and Personality Science.  doi: 10.1177/1948550617728994  PDF


White, C., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2017).  What are the causes and consequences of belief in karma?. Religion, Brain, and Behavior, 7(4), 339 – 342.  doi: 10.1080/2153599X.2016.1249921  PDF

Under Review

White, C. J. M., Schaller, M., Abraham, E., Rottman, J. (2020). A person-centered approach to punishment: Reprimand and avoidance are differentially directed towards adult and child transgressors.  Manuscript in preparation.

Manuscripts in preparation

​Pasek, M. H., Kelly, J. M., Shackleford, C., White, C.J.M., Vishkin, A., Smith, J., Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A., & Ginges, J. (2020). Thinking of God leads to more generosity to members of other religious groups. Manuscript in preparation.


Hofer, M. K., Lai, A., White, C.J.M., & Schaller, M. (2020).  Does caring breed contempt?: The impact of temporary activation of a “parental” mindset on moral judgments.  Manuscript in preparation.